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Guest: Bruce Pittman. Topics: The emerging commercial space industry and related topics. Please direct all comments and questions regarding Space Show programs/guest(s) to the Space Show blog, http://thespaceshow.wordpress.com. Comments and questions should be relevant to the specific Space Show program. Written Transcripts of Space Show programs are a violation of our copyright and are not permitted without prior written consent, even if for your own use. We do not permit the commercial use of Space Show programs or any part thereof, nor do we permit editing, YouTube clips, or clips placed on other private channels & websites. Space Show programs can be quoted, but the quote must be cited or referenced using the proper citation format. Contact The Space Show for further information. In addition, please remember that your Amazon purchases can help support The Space Show/OGLF. See www.onegiantleapfoundation.org/amazon.htm. For those listening to archives using live365.com and rating the programs, please email me as to why you assign a specific rating to the show. This will help me bring better programming to the audience. We welcomed Bruce Pittman back to the show to discuss the emerging commercial space industry. During the first segment of our 90 minute program Bruce said this was the most exciting time every for commercial space, certain in his 30 plus year career. He talked about there being a paradigm shift underway, NASA challenges and the progress made in just five short years. He cited examples with COTS, commercial payloads to the ISS, SpaceX, and lots of smaller companies working with small satellites. Other examples included the 3D printer on the ISS, the growth of spaceports, the industry spreading out into multiple states, and investment capital coming to the industry. I asked about human spaceflight (HSF) and he said it was more challenging and demanding but was optimistic that launch costs would come down, especially if reusability enters the market. Reusability would greatly assist in bringing more commercial options to the table even for HSF. Jerome in the UK emailed to ask about a commercial space industry outside the U.S. Both Bruce and I commented on Jerome's question. Harry emailed Bruce to inquire if going public was essential for pushing the emerging commercial space industry forward. Bruce was also asked what excited him the most in the industry. Listen to his choices. I asked our guest if he saw SLS as an asset to the emerging commercial space industry, being neutral, or being a detriment. He believes there will be synergistic enhancements for both SLS and the commercial space industry through the development of SLS. Don't miss his full comments. Bruce was asked about commercial space ventures being able to finally close a business case and having more than just government as the customer. Allison emailed us asking Bruce to define paradigm shift. This also proved an interesting discussion. Near the end of the segment, our guest was asked bout NEOs and commercial opportunities. We also talked about two NASA papers in this segment. The first, "Pioneering Space: NASA’s Next Steps on the Path to Mars" from May 29, 2014 can be downloaded at www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/files/Pioneering-space-final-052914b.pdf. The second paper, "Emerging Space: The Evolving Landscape of 21st Century American Spaceflight," can be downloaded at www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/files/Emerging_Space_Report.pdf. Just before the break, Paul asked about fuel depots for the commercial space industry. In our second segment, we started talking about space settlement, pioneering, and space exploration. Bruce explained the differences with pioneering making it possible to have a permanent presence in space by getting in place needed infrastructure and the basics for living in space. Space settlement would be established after pioneering. Exploring goes forth to find out what is out there and to return to tell about it. A listener asked if going to the Moon was a pioneering step on the way to Martian settlement. Later, Bruce said that pioneering will be driven by economics. In this segment, we also talked about property rights and benefit sharing plus the impact these two issues might have on the emerging commercial space industry. Risk averseness came up as well. As we were drawing to a close, Bruce mentioned how all of the industry was in a transitional period, including traditional aerospace. He suggested things to look for over the coming months included more commercial activities on the ISS, the upcoming Bigelow module for the ISS, & the Google Lunar XPrize. In closing, we talked about Silicon Valley and the industry as well as the lowering of barriers to entry for emerging commercial space companies. Bruce also mentioned the Next Giant Leap Conference in Hawaii, Nov. 9-13, 2014. For more information, see http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info. Please post your comments/questions on TSS blog above. You can reach Bruce Pittman through me.